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名门家族与教育(一) 斯坦福家族与斯坦福大学

发布时间:2020-05-18 10:05:58 | 来源: | 作者:龙角星教育

教育如何使名门贵族名垂青史?

龙角星家族传承精英教育文化基地联合创始人罗女士带您走进【斯坦福家族与斯坦福大学】!


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The Stanford Family

斯坦福家族

From a Tragic Loss, a Lasting Institution

从家庭悲剧中诞生的博物馆

This museum, and the university that surrounds it, were born as a single idea in response to a tragedy that befell one of the nation’s most powerful, influential, and ambitious 19th-century families.

美国19世纪最强大、最有影响力和最雄心勃勃的家族之一,在发生一场悲剧后创建了这个博物馆及环绕着博物馆的这所大学。

 

Leland Stanford and Jane Lathrop were both born near Albany, York when there were only 24 states in the union and the West was still settled by indigenous and Spanish populations. At a time of enormous growth for the young nation, the Stanfords met, married, and headed to Wisconsin, where Leland practiced law before moving west to California during the Gold Rush, joining his brothers as a merchant in the Sierra foothills. Prospering, and soon accompanied by Jane in Sacramento, he amassed a staggering fortune by organizing the construction of the transcontinental railroad and building its legendary and controversial monopolies on commerce and transportation. Leland Stanford became Governor of California in 1861 and a U.S. Senator in the 1880s.

利兰·斯坦福和简·莱思罗普都出生在约克奥尔巴尼附近。当时美国联邦只有24个州,西部地区仍然由土著和西班牙人定居着。在这个年轻国家迅速发展的时候,斯坦福夫妇相遇、结合然后移居威斯康星州。利兰最初在那里从事律师工作,后在淘金热期间继续西迁,来到加利福尼亚州的马鲛山麓与兄弟们汇合,开始做杂货店生意。生意蒸蒸日上。不久后,在简的陪伴下,他在萨克拉门托组织建设了横跨大陆的铁路,积累了巨额财富,并建立起颇具传奇色彩同时也饱受争议的商业和运输行业垄断。利兰·斯坦福在1861年当选加利福尼亚州的州长,后在19世纪80年代成为美国参议员。

 

As the stanford’s financial and political fortunes in California swelled, the couple lived more opulently, with mansions in Sacramento and on San Francisco’s Nob Hill, large of farmland and vineyards near Mission San Jose,  oil a growing stock form that they named Palo Alto (Spanish for “tall tree”).

随着斯坦福在加利福尼亚州的金融和政治资本日惭雄厚,这对夫妇的生活也更加富裕。他们在萨克拉门托和旧金山的诺布山拥有豪宅,在圣何塞教区附近拥有大片农田和葡萄园,他们给这个养殖场起名帕罗奥多(西班牙语“大树”的意思)。

 

When Jane nearly forty-likely after several miscarriages-she gave birth to the coupler’s only child, Leland DeWitt Stanford in 1868. As he grew up, young Leland—claiming for himself the name Leland Stanford, Jr.-developed keen interests in boats, trains (his father's livelihood), ponies, traveling, and, above all, collecting things: especially artifacts of natural science and antiquities. His collection was displayed in their San Francisco home, an early iteration of what would become the university museum.

简在快到四十岁,经过几次流产后,于1868年生下他们的独子小利兰·德威特·斯坦福。在成长过程中,小利兰·斯坦福对船舶、火车(他父亲的生计)、矮种马、旅行和收藏产生了浓厚的兴趣,特别是对自然科学产物和文物。他的收藏都在他们旧金山的家中,这里后来成为大学的博物馆。

 

To encourage the boy’s education and collecting, the doting parents took Leland Jr. on lengthy journeys to the East Coast and to the capitals, museums, and archaeological sites of Europe. On one of these trips—in March 1884—Leland Jr. contracted typhoid fever and died in Italy. Grief –stricken, yet resolved to create something worthy of his memory, the Stanfords dedicated much of their remaining lives to building the university named in his memory and the museum that honored his passion. The horse farm that was once beneath this tile floor would prove the perfect setting.

为了鼓励孩子的教育和收藏,宠爱有加的父母带着小利兰长途跋涉,到东海岸和欧洲各国首都、博物馆和考古遗址广泛游历。在1884年3月的一次旅行当中,小利兰感染伤寒并在意大利去世。为了纪念他们的孩子,斯坦福夫妇将他们的余生大部分用于建设这座以小利兰命名的大学和纪念他收藏热情的博物馆。曾经的养马场就在这个地板下面,一个完美的设想。

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Leland Stanford Sr.’s life and work exemplifies the almost limitless 19th-century American drive to develop land, technology, and personal fortune in an expanding country. He was born in upstate New York to an affluent farming family that traced its roots to 17th-century New England settlers. Educated alongside women in a coeducational seminary, he pursued an early interest in law and debate, despite being a slow and deliberate public speaker.

老利兰·斯坦福的一生和事业,很好地体现了19世纪在美国这片不断扩张的国土上,土地、技术和个人财富无限的发展空间。老利兰·斯坦福出生在纽约州北部一个富裕的农耕家庭,其历史可以追溯到17世纪的新英格兰定居者。尽管并不擅长在公众面前演说,但在男女同校的神学院里接受教育的他,开始对法律和辩论发生兴趣。

 

In the 1850s, several of his brothers, cousins and friends made the arduous six-month journey to Caifornia to make their fortunes in the Gold Rush; but Leland, newly married to Jane Lathrop, chose to open a frontier law practice in Wisconsin. When a fire destroyed the young lawyer’s library, the couple decided that Leland should join his eldest brother Josiah’s general store business in California’s Sierra foothills. Leland prospered as a merchant, and by 1856 he was overseeing a sizable trading enterprise headquartered in the state capital of Sacramento.

在19世纪50年代,他的几个兄弟、表亲和朋友经过六个月的艰苦旅程,前往加利福尼亚州淘金发财,而利兰跟简·莱思罗普新婚不久,选择到边疆威斯康星州开设法律事务所。后来的一场火灾烧掉了这位年轻律师的图书馆,而夫妻二人也决定,利兰应该去加州马鲛山麓找他的大哥乔赛亚一起做杂货店生意。利兰是做生意的一把好手,到1856年时,他已经管理着一家颇具规模的贸易企业,总部设在加州首府萨克拉门托。

 

Leland Stanford Sr. became President of the fledgling Central Pacific Railroad in 1861, the same year he would be elected Governor of California. Stanford used his considerable business acumen, political connections, technical curiosity and personal ambition to propel the high-risk project of building the western stretch of a transcontinental railroad.

老利兰·斯坦福在1861年成为刚刚起步的中太铁路公司总裁,同年当选加州州长。斯坦福利用他惊人的商业头脑、政治背景、科技兴趣和个人雄心壮志,推动建设高风险的横跨大陆铁路线的西延线项目。

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One of seven siblings, Jane Lathrop was largely educated at home, as were most young women at that time. Early in her marriage to Leland Stanford Sr., her husband moved from Wisconsin to California to pursue a new career, while her father’s illness compelled Jane to return to her family in New York. The young couple wrote to each other extensively during three years apart. (Decades later, after Leland Sr.’s death, Jane burned the letters, remarking that it would be too difficult to imagine their tender words trickling into other hands.) After her father’s death in 1855, Jane finally reunited with Leland Sr. in Sacramento, where he had established a flourishing business. At thirty-nine, she bore their only child, Leland Jr.

作为七个兄弟姐妹中的一个,简·莱思罗普跟当时大多数年轻女性一样,基本上是在家中接受教育的。在结婚初期,她的丈夫老利兰·斯坦福为开启新的事业,从威斯康星州迁居加利福尼亚州,而她也因为父亲生病而回到了纽约的家人身边。这对年轻的夫妻前后分居三年,期间都给对方写了很多很多的信。(几十年后,简在老利兰去世后烧掉了这些信件。她说很难接受他们温言软语的信件流入外人之手。)父亲于1855年去世后,简也终于来到萨克拉门托与老利兰重聚,而老利兰此地的生意也做得风生水起。简在39岁时才生下他们的独子小利兰。

 

Devastated by Leland Jr/s tragic death at age fifteen, she poured herself into the planning and development of the Leland Stanford Junior University and museum, transmuting her grief into a gift for other people’s sons and daughters. When Leland Sr. died unexpectedly in 1893, she had no access to the substantial accounts that supported the university, as her husband's estate was tied up in a legal dispute with the federal government. With strength, leadership, and clarity of vision, Jane managed to keep the university and museum open, rejecting the advice of trustees and advisors.

而小利兰在十五岁时夭折,这让她深受打击,从此全部心思都投入到小利兰·斯坦福大学和博物馆的筹建当中,把悲伤转化为送给其他孩子的礼物。1893年,老利兰意外去世,而丈夫的产业也因为与联邦政府存在法律纠纷而冻结,她无法动用主要账户支持学校运行。得益于她的毅力、领导能力和清晰的头脑,简成功地保证了学校和博物馆的运作,拒绝接受理事和顾问的建议。

 

While traveling in Honolulu, Hawaii in 1905, Jane died suddenly under mysterious circumstances at the Moana Hotel. She may have died from strychnine poisoning after drinking soda water contaminated with the chemical, but autopsy results were inconclusive. More than a century later, museum staff report seeing jane’s ghost after hours and smelling her gardenia perfume in the galleries.

1905年,简在夏威夷檀香山旅行期间,突然在莫纳酒店神秘去世。简的死因可能是饮用了被士的宁污染的苏打水导致的化学品中毒,但尸检结果却无法确认死因。一个多世纪过去了,博物馆工作人员报告说,曾在闭馆后见到简的幽灵,并在画廊里嗅到过她的栀子花香水味儿。

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The artifacts, artwork, and curiosities that Leland Jr. collected illustrate his broad journeys and brief life. From a young age, he collected things that might interest any young child: rocks, natural specimens, marbles, knickknacks, and souvenirs. Leland Jr. later delved into ethnology and archaeology, especially Egyptology and Greco-Roman antiquities. With his parents’ encouragement he displayed his growing collection in the family home in Nob Hill, and in. 1877 he placed a deposit in a local bank with the intent to open a public museum one day. Leland Jr. was also interested in making art: he took photographs, drew detailed pictures of boats, collaged a scrapbook, and took up woodcarving. His parents saw to it that their son received a solid education, hiring Herbert Charles Nash, a vice consul in Nice, France, as his dedicated tutor. Leland Jr. was a careful learner and precise artist, always working toward the sophisticated and successful life for which his parents prepared him but which he did not have the chance to enjoy. 

小利兰搜集的工艺品、艺术品和古董展现了他广泛的游历和短暂的生命。小利兰从小就像其他孩子一样,搜集了很多石块、天然标本、大理石以及小玩意儿和纪念品。小利兰后来深入研究民族学和考古学,特别是埃及学和希腊罗马文物。在父母的鼓励下,他在诺布山家中展示他不断增加的收藏。1877年,他在当地一家银行存入一笔款子,打算有朝一日开设一家公共博物馆。小利兰也热衷于艺术创作:摄影、工笔画船、剪贴、木雕等。父母认定他们的儿子需要接受良好的教育,因此聘请了法国尼斯的副领事赫伯特·查尔斯·纳什担任他的专职教师。小利兰是一位认真的学生,也是精益求精的艺术家,一直朝着父母为他准备的精致的人生而努力。遗憾的是,他没能享受到这样成功的生活。

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家人在一起郊游


Living in the Gilded Age

镀金时代

Reconstruction following the Civil War paved the way for an unprecedented era of prosperity and innovation from the 1870s to 1900. With the completion of the trans-continental railroad in 1869, the explosive growth of heavy industries and mechanized factories bolstered the economy in the northern states and gave rise to a new American aristocracy. Advances in technology brought numerous modern conveniences such as the telephone, light bulb, zipper, and paper clip. Yet wealth inequality was immense, labor unions fought for living wages, and millions of immigrants came to the country to pursue the American Dream.

南北战争之后的重建工作,为19世纪70年代至1900年空前的繁荣与创新铺平了道路。随着1869年横跨大陆的铁路竣工,重工业和机械化工厂的爆炸式增长推动了北方各州的经济发展,产生了一个新的美国贵族阶层。技术的进步带来了众多现代化的便利设施,比如电话、灯泡、拉链和回形针。然而,贫富差距也是巨大的,工会为了活命的工资而斗争,数百万的移民来到这个国家寻找美国梦。

 

In 1873, Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner wrote a satirical novel, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, coining the term that characterized the materialism, greed, and corruption that was rampant in that era In response to the many new industrialists hoarding wealth and limiting healthy competition at the expense of poor laborers, in 1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act to prevent dangerous monopolies. President Benjamin Harrison, for whom Leland Sr. campaigned, signed the act into law.

1873年,马克·吐温和查尔斯·达德利·华纳写了一部讽刺小说《镀金时代》,点出了那个时代无处不在的物质主义、贪婪和腐败。为了制止实业新贵囤积财富和以牺牲贫苦劳工为代价开展竞争,美国国会在1890年通过了《谢尔曼反托拉斯法案》,防止形成危险的垄断。老利兰支持的总统本杰明·哈里森签署了该法案,使之成为法律。

 

Like other affluent families, the Stanfords enjoyed privileges such as world travel, lush living, and collecting art and antiquities. Their domestic décor (on view) favored the gilt detail for which the period became known. Yet they also directed their considerable wealth toward the public good, endowing their university so it might take root in a moment of societal upheaval and catalyze positive change in the future.

与其他富裕家庭一样,斯坦福一家享有环球旅行、奢侈生活和收藏艺术品和古董的便利。他们的室内装饰(见现场)注重那个时期典型的镀金细节。然而,他们也将相当多的财富用于公共事业,资助他们的大学在社会动荡时期站稳脚跟并在未来推动积极的变化。

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老利兰·斯坦福

“The Farm”

“农场”

Leland Stanford Sr. first purchased land along San Francisquito Creek in 1876. By the mid-l88os, he had expanded the farm to 8,800 acres of orchard, grain, vegetables, vineyard, grazing land, stables, and track. A convenient ride by rail from San Francisco, this favorite family property served as a respite from business and social pressures. It was also a place where Leland Sr. could experiment with the breeding and training of both trotting and standard thoroughbred horses.

老利兰·斯坦福于1876年开始在圣弗朗西斯科特河流域购买土地。到了19世纪80年代中期,他的农场扩大到8,800英亩,建设有果园、农田、菜园、葡萄园、牧场、马厩和赛马道。由于从旧金山搭乘火车很方便快捷,这家人最喜欢的这块家产成为缓解商场和社会压力的好场所。这里也是老利兰尝试繁殖和训练赛马和标准纯种马的好地方。

 

The heart of the Palo Alto Farm was the “trotting department,” M a complex of stables and paddocks, shops and tracks, employee housing and offices. The Farm boarded more than 600 horses and employed 150 men and women—one-third of them Chinese employees, some of them former railroad workers. During the Farm’s peak years (1880-1895), Palo Alto trotters set 19 world records and ranked among the premier horse establishments in the country.

帕罗奥多农场的中心是“赛马部”,由马厩和看台、商店和赛道、员工住宅和办公室组成。农场饲养了600多匹马,雇用了150名男女员工,其中三分之一是中国人,部分人此前曾是铁路工人。在农场的巅峰时期(1880-1895年),帕罗奥多的赛马创造了19项世界纪录,并跻身美国首屈一指的养马场。

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馆内的马型展览品

The Farm was also a playground for Leland Jr., who rode his pony, hiked the foothills with his dogs, and operated his child-size narrow-gauge railroad for family and friends. After his death in 1884, the Farm became a special retreat for his parents as well as the focal point for the university rising in Leland Jr.’s name. Though operations of the stock farm closed in 1903, “the Farm” remains an important element of the university’s identity. The Red Barn, restored in 1984, continues to serve as an equestrian center; along with a nearby brick stable, it is among the few surviving structures from the land’s pre-University era.

农场也是小利兰的游乐场,他在这里骑他的矮种马,带着他的狗去徒步登山,为家人和朋友操作他的儿童窄轨铁路。在他1884年去世后,农场成为他父母的特殊休养所,也是以小利兰名字命名的这所大学的焦点。虽然畜牧场在1903年停止了经营,但“农场”仍然是这所大学的重要组成部分。红谷仓在1984年得以修复,并继续作为马术中心使用。它与附近的砖砌马厩一样,是大学设立前该地区少数幸存的建筑物之一。


Animals in Motion

动感动物

In 1872 Leland Stanford Sr. hired San Francisco photographer Eadweard Muybridge to photograph his remarkable horse Occident running at full speed. It was the beginning of a momentous 10-year collaboration: Leland Sr. encouraged and paid for Muybridge's elaborate experiments to capture a horse's movements far more precisely than what the human eye could observe. Leland Sr.—not a horse better or gambler—viewed the horse as a natural machine that could be optimized for public benefit, not unlike the railroad he oversaw that would, paradoxically, soon make horse travel obsolete. The Animals in Motion experiments conducted at the Palo Alto Farm led to Muybridge's development of split-second exposure times, the use of cameras tripped in rapid succession, and an innovative means of projecting the resulting images—the precursor of motion pictures. 

1872年,老利兰·斯坦福聘请旧金山摄影师埃德沃德·迈布里奇为他的宝马良驹“西方”拍摄全速奔跑的照片,从此开启了长达10年的重要合作。老利兰鼓励并资助迈布里奇精心实验如何捕捉肉眼难以察觉的马的动作。老利兰并不赌马,而是把马当作可以改进并造福社会的天然机器,跟他经营的铁路没什么两样。当然,他的铁路很快就淘汰了骑马出行。在帕罗奥多农场进行的动感动物实验,让迈布里奇开发出了相机瞬间曝光、高速连续曝光以及映像投射创新方法,成为动态电影的先驱。

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斯坦福家人纪念雕像


From Curiosity to Collecting

从好奇到收集

On his first European grand tour in 1880-1881, Leland Jr. bought objects relating to the 1870 Siege of Paris (Franco-Prussian War) and the Paris Commune. Traveling extensively throughout Western and Eastern Europe, he and his parents gathered contemporary crafts: Italian micro-mosaics, German beer steins, French porcelain, Italian glassware, and small genre paintings. One of his favorite paintings, a ship scene painted by his friend Wilsie Taylor (on view at right), hung in his bedroom. Many of these objects were displayed in the two rooms of the Stanford’s San Francisco mansion dubbed "Leland's Museum,

在1880-1881年的首次欧洲游历期间,小利兰买到了有关1870年巴黎围城(普法战争)和巴黎公社的一些物品。他和父母在东西欧广泛游历过程中,搜集到的当代工艺品包括:意大利微砌马赛克、德国啤酒杯、法国瓷器、意大利玻璃器皿以及小型风俗画。他最喜欢的画作之一,是他的好友威尔西·泰勒(见右侧)绘制的船景,被他挂在卧室里。这些藏品许多都放在斯坦福一家在旧金山豪宅的两个房间里,称为“利兰博物馆”。

 

Leland Jr.’s second trip to Europe in 1883-1884 dramatically sharpened his tastes and his ambitions as a museum builder. Studying the Cypriot collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1882, Leland Jr. discussed public “art education" with the museum’s director, Luigi di Cesnola. Also interested in ancient artifacts, Leland Jr. avidly read accounts of French excavations in Egypt and pored over the Louvre’s Egyptian wing. He copied and deciphered hieroglyphs from scarabs and sarcophagi.

1883-1884年,小利兰的第二次欧洲之行大大提高了他建设博物馆的品味和决心。1882年,小利兰在大都会艺术博物馆研究塞浦路斯藏品期间,与博物馆馆长卢吉·德·塞斯诺拉讨论公共“艺术教育”。小利兰对古代工艺品也很感兴趣,他认真阅读法国人在埃及考古发掘的报道,钻研卢浮宫埃及馆藏品。他复制并破译圣甲虫雕刻和石棺象形文字。


From Curiosity to Collecting

从好奇到收集

On his first European grand tour in 1880-1881, Leland Jr. bought objects relating to the 1870 Siege of Paris (Franco-Prussian War) and the Paris Commune. Traveling extensively throughout Western and Eastern Europe, he and his parents gathered contemporary crafts: Italian micro-mosaics, German beer steins, French porcelain, Italian glassware, and small genre paintings. One of his favorite paintings, a ship scene painted by his friend Wilsie Taylor (on view at right), hung in his bedroom. Many of these objects were displayed in the two rooms of the Stanford’s San Francisco mansion dubbed "Leland's Museum,

在1880-1881年的首次欧洲游历期间,小利兰买到了有关1870年巴黎围城(普法战争)和巴黎公社的一些物品。他和父母在东西欧广泛游历过程中,搜集到的当代工艺品包括:意大利微砌马赛克、德国啤酒杯、法国瓷器、意大利玻璃器皿以及小型风俗画。他最喜欢的画作之一,是他的好友威尔西·泰勒(见右侧)绘制的船景,被他挂在卧室里。这些藏品许多都放在斯坦福一家在旧金山豪宅的两个房间里,称为“利兰博物馆”。

Leland Jr.’s second trip to Europe in 1883-1884 dramatically sharpened his tastes and his ambitions as a museum builder. Studying the Cypriot collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1882, Leland Jr. discussed public “art education" with the museum’s director, Luigi di Cesnola. Also interested in ancient artifacts, Leland Jr. avidly read accounts of French excavations in Egypt and pored over the Louvre’s Egyptian wing. He copied and deciphered hieroglyphs from scarabs and sarcophagi.

1883-1884年,小利兰的第二次欧洲之行大大提高了他建设博物馆的品味和决心。1882年,小利兰在大都会艺术博物馆研究塞浦路斯藏品期间,与博物馆馆长卢吉·德·塞斯诺拉讨论公共“艺术教育”。小利兰对古代工艺品也很感兴趣,他认真阅读法国人在埃及考古发掘的报道,钻研卢浮宫埃及馆藏品。他复制并破译圣甲虫雕刻和石棺象形文字。

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馆内收藏品

By the time of his death in 1884, Leland Jr.'s collections were rich in Egyptian, Greek, and Roman antiquities, pre-historic European ethnology, and an international collection of arms and armor. Returning to the states following their son’s untimely death, Jane and Leland Sr. began to build upon Leland Jr.,s antiquities, first by purchasing a portion of an extensive group of Cypriot objects owned by the Metropolitan. Dating from the Bronze Age through the Roman period, these items had been excavated or purchased in Cyprus by Met director Cesnola while he served as U.S. Consul. Despite severe earthquake damage to the Stanford Museum in 1906 and selective deaccessioning over the decades, the Cesnola collection remains one of the largest groups of Cypriot antiquities in the United States.

到1884年他去世时,小利兰的藏品中拥有丰富的埃及、希腊和罗马文物,史前欧洲民族学以及世界各国的武器和盔甲等。在小利兰去世后,简和老利兰回到美国,开始替儿子收藏文物,首先购买了大都会拥有的部分塞浦路斯藏品。从青铜器时代到罗马时期,这些物品都是由大都会馆长塞斯诺拉出任美国公使期间在塞浦路斯挖掘或收购的。尽管1906年斯坦福博物馆遭受了严重的地震破坏,几十年来也有选择地开展了一些交换活动,但塞斯诺拉藏品仍然是美国最大的塞浦路斯文物收藏之一。


Our Darling Boy

我们亲爱的儿子

As Leland Jr.’s interest in archaeology deepened, the Stanford family planned a year-long trip to Europe in 1883-in part to encourage the .teenager’s collecting but also to escape the hostile, anti-railroad political climate facing Leland Sr. in California. On their travels, young Leland Jr. spent hours in Paris’s Louvre Museum, and in Athens he met Heinrich Schliemann, the famed archaeologist of Troy. In Turkey in the dead of winter, while taking a break from hunting for antiquities, the 15-year-old asked to pilot the steamboat on which they were traveling; he spent the day on the freezing deck facing whipping winds and drenching sea spray. By the time the family reached Naples, Italy, in February 1884, the boy was faint, ill, and, worst of all, had contracted typhoid fever. His worried parents moved him to Florence, where they hoped the drier climate was more favorable to his recovery. Doctors wrapped his fever-wracked body in cold, wet sheets, but his delirium persisted for three weeks. On March 13, 1884-two months shy of his sixteenth birthday-he died.

随着小利兰对考古的兴趣越来越深,斯坦福一家计划在1883年进行一场为期一年的欧洲之旅,既是鼓励孩子的收藏兴趣,也为逃避老利兰一家在加州所面临的反对铁路建设的敌对政治气候。在他们旅行期间,年轻的小利兰在巴黎的卢浮宫博物馆里一待就是几个小时;在雅典,他遇到了著名的特洛伊考古学家海因里希·施里曼。深冬时节,他们在搜寻文物的间隙里乘船在土耳其旅行,15岁的小利兰请求亲自驾驶汽船。在凛冽的寒风和飞溅的浪花中,他在冰冷的甲板上坚守了一天。当一家人在1884年2月到达意大利的那不勒斯时,孩子的身体已经病弱不堪,而糟糕的是他还患上了伤寒。焦急的父母把他送到佛罗伦萨,希望那里干燥的气候有利于他的康复。尽管医生用湿冷的被单裹住他发烫的身体,但他还是在昏迷了三个星期后,于1884年3月13日离世,此时距离他十六岁的生日不到两个月。

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小利兰的照片

Leland Jr.’s death shattered his parents. “I now have nothing to .live, for,” the railroad tycoon said. Jane conducted séances to try to communicate with the boy’s spirit. Even by Victorian standards, the Stanfords’ mourning was staggering in its public display: Leland Jr.’s body was transported home in a series of funeral processions conducted over eight months, lying in state in Paris, New York, and finally in San Francisco, By the time they returned home, Leland Sr. and Jane had formalized their plan to honor their son’s memory by establishing a university and a museum bearing his name.

小利兰的死伤透了父母的心。这位铁路大亨说:“我现在完全失去了生活的目标。”简请了巫师做法事,试图与孩子的灵魂沟通。在公众的眼中,斯坦福一家的哀悼活动,即使按照维多利亚时代的标准,也是非常奢华的:小兰利遗体的归家旅程持续了八个月之久,在巴黎、纽约,最后在旧金山分别举行了送别活动。当他们重返家园时,老利兰和简已经决定,将设立以小利兰的名字命名的大学和博物馆,以此纪念他们的儿子。


Victorian Mourning

维多利亚风格的哀悼

After Leland Jr. died, his parents commissioned posthumous portraits and a death mask to grieve, accept, and memorialize the too-short life of their son. The Stanfords engaged deeply with the Victorian culture of mourning, which was perpetuated by high mortality rates of the era. The death mask was made directly from the face of the deceased and cast in plaster or a similar material. Photographs and death masks were often used to generate the posthumous portraits that celebrated the dead.

小利兰去世后,他的父母藉遗像和死亡面具来悼念、接受和纪念儿子短暂的一生。那个时代的高死亡率,让维多利亚风格的哀悼文化长盛不衰,而斯坦福一家对此也投入颇深。死亡面具是用石膏或类似材料直接从死者脸上制作而成的。照片和死亡面具经常用来制作颂扬死者的遗像。

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死亡面具


Collection Building

搜集藏品

Jane devoted much attention to building the museum's collections, especially in areas of Iceland Jr.’s expressed interests. "There is so much work to do in the Museum," Jane Starford wrote a friend in 1893, six months after the death of her husband. "I feel as if [the museum] was home in the truest sense for here is all that [is] dearest that is left to me...of my loved ones." By the time of the museum’s opening that year, she had added more than fifteen thousand items to her son’s collections.

简花费大量精力搜集博物馆藏品,重点是小利兰明确表示有兴趣的藏品。1893年,简·斯坦福在给朋友的信中说:“博物馆里有很多工作要做。”而此六个月,她的丈夫也不幸去世。“我觉得【博物馆】好像是我真正意义上的家,因为我所爱的人留给我的东西都在这里了。”当那年博物馆开放时,她已经为儿子的收藏增加了1万5千多件藏品。

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馆内藏品

By the time Jane acquired the Seisuke Ikeda Collection in 1904, she had journeyed twice to Asia and had built a diverse collection of Japanese and Chinese art. Despite the losses suffered in the 1906 earthquake, thousands of artworks from the family's founding collection remain at the core of this museum's holdings and are among its most prized objects. Selections from the Ikeda Collection are on view in this case and in the Asian gallery next to the Main Lobby.

简在1904年收购了池田清助的收藏,而此前她曾两次前往亚洲,搜集了各种日本和中国的艺术品。尽管1906年的地震造成一些损失,但家族最初收藏的数千件艺术品仍然是博物馆馆藏的核心,也是其中最珍贵的一部分藏品。从池田处收购来的藏品都在这个展柜以及大堂旁边的亚洲画廊展出。

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罗洪霞女士在斯坦福家族雕像前留影




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